What are the ingredients listed on a bottle of Rosita liquid?
100% wild-caught cod liver oil (Gadus morhua), rosemary, organic vitamin E.
How many units of vitamin A and vitamin D are in one serving of liquid Rosita?
Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver OIl is a completely unrefined and unprocessed whole food, so the concentration of nutrients will always vary slightly from batch to batch due to naturally occuring seasonal shifts. Here’s the general amount of vitamins A and D in one teaspoon of the liquid, which is equal to one serving:
- Vitamin D3 - 395 IU per teaspoon,
- Vitamin A - 3,900 IU per teaspoon.
How many units of vitamin A and vitamin D are in the softgels?
A serving size of 3 Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil softgels has:
- 127 IU Vitamin D3 per serving (3 softgels),
- 1,260 IU Vitamin A per serving (3 softgels).
An individual softgel has:
- 42.3 IU Vitamin D3 per softgel,
- 420 IU Vitamin A per softgel.
What is the source of natural vitamin E used as an antioxidant in Rosita?
The vitamin E is totally natural and obtained from non-GMO sunflower seeds. It is full-spectrum natural vitamin E, not isolated vitamin E.
It is free of common allergens.
- Peanut-free, and
- Tree nut-free.
The amounts of natural vitamin E used are minimal, but essential for a completely raw and unprocessed oil to have a more stable shelf-life.
What are the softgels made out of?
The softgels are made out of 100% fish gelatin.
What are the differences between retinol and palmitate forms of vitamin A?
Retinyl palmitate (some manufacturers simply call it “palmitate”) is the main storage form of vitamin A in all fish livers, and is actually a combination of retinol and palmitic acid. Small amounts of “free retinol” may also be present in the liver.
With regards to vitamin A analysis of fish liver oils, there is no need to measure levels of palmitate (the predominant form) and retinol (the minor form) separately. When a fish liver oil sample is sent away for analytical testing to measure the total level of vitamin A, the laboratory will take the sample of liver oil and break all forms of vitamin A present in the liver oil (including the palmitate form) down to the retinol form. The next step is to measure the amount of retinol present and this measurement is therefore a measure of the total vitamin A content for that sample of fish liver oil.
Does Rosita contain both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3?
“Cod fish only contains vitamin D3. There is no vitamin D2 in either cod fish or cod liver oil.”
- Dr. Jacob Exler, Nutritionist, USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory
Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver OIl contains exactly what you would find present in the liver oil of a living wild codfish. Though vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) are available in a fish’s diet, vitamin D2 is almost absent in fish and fish liver oils. A possible explanation regarding why this is the case is provided below:
Forms of vitamin D available in a fish’s diet
- Phytoplankton: Microalgae live at the surface of the water and vitamin D2 is probably formed via sun exposure of provitamin D (ergosterol). This is supported by the fact that microalgae tested in August have a higher vitamin D content than in October and December.
- Phytoplankton: Microalgae have been reported by some to also contain (in addition to ergosterol and vitamin D2) both vitamin D3 and provitamin D3. There is evidence for microalgae (phytoplankton) as the basis of the food chain is the origin of vitamin D3 in fish. The occurrence of vitamin D3 in microalgae suggests that vitamin D3 may exist in the plant kingdom. And vitamin D3 has been identified in several plant species.
- Zooplankton: Zooplankton principally contains 7-dehydrocholesterol as their provitamin D content. Codfish also consume zooplankton (i.e. Copepoda). Levels of vitamin D3 may vary depending on the time of year and depth in the sea that the zooplankton are found.
- Fish skin: Although there is some evidence for the synthesis of vitamin D3 in the skin of fish, vitamin D3 synthesis is likely to be negligible or minimal because of the limited UVB-light in their natural habitats combined with low amounts of 7-dehydrocholesterol in fish skin.
Forms of vitamin D present in fish and fish livers
It is obvious from what has been written above that both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are available for fish in their diet, but vitamin D2 is almost absent in fish. The only form of vitamin D that has been identified at significant levels in fish oils (both body and liver) is vitamin D3. This is also supported by the work of world-famous vitamin D researchers, including Dr. Michael Holick, who has never found vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) in cod liver oil or other livers oils including flounder, redfish, mackerel, eel and mullet liver oils. In addition, similar results have been obtained by the Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling University, where scientists sampled fish livers and a great deal of unrefined fish liver oils over many years.
The mystery why fish liver oils only contain vitamin D3
What remains a mystery to scientists and marine experts is why the only form of vitamin D that has been identified in fish oils is vitamin D3. You would expect vitamin D2 would be present especially if vitamin D2 produced in phytoplankton was concentrated in the food chain. The main explanations for this observation include:
- Fish have the ability to discriminate between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 and therefore, only concentrate vitamin D3 in their visceral oils.
- Alternatively, fish or zooplankton that consume phytoplankton have a similar capacity as Paramecium to convert the side chain of vitamin D2 into the side chain of vitamin D3.
- There is also a possibility the bioavailability of vitamin D2 is lower than for D3 in fish.
More about vitamin D
Humans obtain vitamin D from diet and sunlight. There are two main forms of vitamin D: cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). The main source of vitamin D3 is from exposure to sunlight, which accounts for more than 90% of the body’s vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the human skin by a photochemical conversion via ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure of provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol). Vitamin D2 is sourced from the UV irradiation of ergosterol, which is a steroid found in some plants, but largely fungi. Humans have a combination of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 available to them from sunlight UV exposure (vitamin D3), egg yolks and oily fish (vitamin D3), fortified margarine, milk and breakfast cereals (fortified vitamin D2) and dietary supplements (vitamin D2 and vitamin D3). Please note that we do not recommend foods fortified with vitamin D.
Both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 undergo similar enzymatic hydroxylation processes which convert them to the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D2 or D3 (calcitriol). The liver and kidneys participate to make this active form of the vitamin that the body can use. However, there may be differences in their respective efficacies in raising serum 25(OH)D, which is a marker of vitamin D status. Differences may be due to their differing affinities for the vitamin D receptor. It is also thought that vitamin D3 is the preferred substrate for hepatic 25-hydroxylase.
Some studies indicate that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2; and that vitamin D2 is 30% to 50% less effective than vitamin D3 in maintaining serum 25(OH)D levels.
Is Rosita free of common allergens?Yes! It is free of common allergens:
Does Rosita’s ancient method affect the nutritional composition of the cod liver oil?
The levels of nutrients (including fat-soluble vitamins A and D and omega fatty acids) present in the liver of a living wild codfish are not significantly different when compared to the oil obtained using the ancient production method employed by Rosita. Experiments and third-party testing at a certified, independent laboratory have been performed to prove this. Nature dictates the nutrient levels in the Rosita oils, which is exactly how it was for our ancestors hundreds of years ago. You can view the test results, which include nutritional information, here.
Is Rosita in triglyceride form or ethyl ester form?
The fats in Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil are in their natural triglyceride (TG) form, which is what you would expect from completely unrefined cod liver oil. Scientific research confirms oils in their triglyceride form exhibit greater absorption over the synthetic ethyl ester (EE) form. This also means levels of omega-3 EPA and DHA will be greater in those consuming triglyceride-based fish oils than those consuming ethyl esters. Please also note that the natural triglycerides present in Rosita oils are natural triglycerides and not re-esterified triglycerides, which are basically ethyl esters that are reassembled back into triglycerides. Rosita does not have to recreate the natural triglyceride form because our oils are completely unprocessed.